Refining refers to the process by which crude oil is made into useful products.   Internal combustion engines, for example, function best when using a light liquid, high octane mixture, qualities that raw crude does not offer in its naturally occurring state.
Transforming crude into high performance fuel is one of the main tasks undertaken at a refinery.
Oil refineries are vast chemical factories that separate and recombine complex hydrocarbon chains using means such as distillation, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, thermal cracking, catalytic reforming, isomerisation and alkylation. Read more
     Click here for a simple animated view of distillation
In 2010, refineries consumed 20,770,220 GJ and emitted 1,752,861 GHG tonnes.